It matters how you start: Early numeracy mastery predicts high school math course-taking and college attendance
Using data from the Applied Problems subtest of the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Achievement administered to 1,364 children from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Childcare and Youth Development (SECCYD), this study measures children’s mastery of three numeric competencies (counting, concrete representational arithmetic and abstract arithmetic operations) at 54 months of age.
By: Pamela Davis-Kean, Thurston Domina, Megan Kuhfeld, Alexa Ellis, Elizabeth Gershoff
Putting the individual into reliability: Bayesian testing of homogeneous within-person variance in hierarchical models
This research introduces a novel approach, using the Bayes factor, wherein a researcher can directly test for homogeneous within-person variance in hierarchical models. Additionally, we introduce a membership model that allows for classifying which (and how many) individuals belong to the common variance model.
By: Donald Williams, Stephen Martin, Phillipe Rast
Topics: Measurement & scaling
Graphical modeling has emerged recently in psychology (Epskamp et al. 2018), where the data is typically long or low-dimensional (p < n; Donald R. Williams et al. (2019),
Donald R. Williams & Rast (2019)). The primary purpose of GGMnonreg is to provide methods that were specifically designed for low-dimensional data (e.g., those common in the
By: Donald Williams
Topics: Measurement & scaling
Identifying students who are off-track academically in 9th grade: The role of social-emotional learning trajectories
This study examined the stability of social-emotional learning (SEL) skills and the extent to which students’ initial level in SEL skills in 6th grade and growth in SEL skills from 6th to 8th grade are related to students’ successful transition to secondary school. Findings suggest that understanding how a student develops social-emotionally can improve identification of students not on track to succeed in high school.
Using achievement data from fall and spring of grades K-8 for 840,000 students in 8,800 public schools, this study provides novel evidence on how achievement and growth differ between rural and nonrural schools. Rural students start kindergarten slightly ahead of nonrural students but fall behind by middle school. The divergence is driven by larger summer losses for rural students. In both rural and nonrural schools, Black–White achievement gaps widen during the school year.
Researchers interviewed parents whose children participated in a three-week structured kindergarten transition program designed to promote parental involvement in school, reduce students’ chronic absenteeism, and increase children’s readiness for kindergarten. Interviewees expressed that participating in the program yielded benefits for themselves and their children, and proposed various ways that adjusting the program could better meet the needs of all stakeholders. Parent suggestions were synthesized into multiple implications for practice and substantiated by current relevant literature.
By: Christopher Merideth, Beth Cavanaugh, Sue Romas, Nicole Ralston, Eva Arias, Beth Tarasawa, Jacqueline Waggoner
Schools as refractors: Change in variance in children’s cognitive skills change while in school versus out
How does schooling affect inequality in students’ academic skills? This study uses seasonal comparisons to examine the possibilities that schooling exacerbates, reduces, or reproduces overall skill inequality in math, reading, language use, and science with recent national data on US public school students spanning numerous grade levels from the NWEA MAP Growth assessment. Results suggest that schooling has a compensatory effect on inequality in reading, language, and science skills but not math skills. Theoretical implications of findings are discussed.
By: Dennis Condron, Douglas Downery, Megan Kuhfeld