The zone of proximal development (ZPD) and why it matters for early childhood learning

Psychologist Lev Vygotsky coined the term “zone of proximal development” (ZPD) in the 1930s to describe the sweet spot where instruction is most beneficial for each student—just beyond their current level of independent capability. You can think of ZPD as the difference between what a child can do independently and what they are capable of doing with targeted assistance (that is, scaffolding).

Instruction focused within each student’s ZPD is neither too difficult nor too easy; it is just challenging enough to help them develop new skills by building on those that have already been established. Students are most receptive to instruction within their ZPD because it represents the next logical step in their ongoing skill development. In “The zone of proximal development (ZPD), the power of just right,” Brooke Mabry, coordinator of Professional Learning Design at NWEA, further unpacks Vygotsky’s work and the importance of helping students be challenged—just enough.

How to find a ZPD

A ZPD changes as children learn and grow, so without reliable information on students’ constantly evolving ZPDs, it is difficult to identify who is ready for more challenging material and who needs additional assistance. An interim assessment, like MAP® Growth™, can help you understand what students know—and what they’re ready to learn next. You can also locate a ZPD through classroom assessment.

Instruction focused within each student’s ZPD is neither too difficult nor too easy; it is just challenging enough to help them develop new skills.

The benefits of working with a ZPD

Understanding how to locate and use each student’s ZPD can help you plan more targeted instruction for your whole class, small groups, and individuals. Ultimately, aligning classroom teaching strategies to students’ ZPDs can help educators more effectively guide all students in their early childhood learning. Those early years are especially critical because brain development is at its highest, and research shows children who receive quality education when they’re very young are “less likely to be placed in special education, less likely to be retained in a grade, and more likely to graduate from high school than peers who didn’t attend such programs.”

The common thread between formative assessment practices and the practice of identifying and teaching within the ZPD is the idea that in order for teaching and learning to be effective, instruction should focus on skills and knowledge that are attainable for students. With constant feedback—or scaffolding—we know that students’ learning and understanding can continue to develop at an appropriate pace.

Learn more about ZPD and how to locate it for your students in “The zone of proximal development (ZPD): The power of just right.”


How to prepare kids for testing

Assessment data is most useful when students are able to give their best effort on a test. There’s a lot you can do to set them up for success—even when testing remotely.

Read more


Assess your reading assessment

To get a complete picture of your students’ reading skills, make sure your reading assessment focuses on the right things.

What to look for


3 ways to support older readers

Reading fluency is critical, even when your state summative stops assessing it. Why? Because fluency helps foster a love of reading in all students, one that goes well beyond the ELA classroom.

Strategies to try